from Merced High School
Anticipatory Chart- Before reading a selection, hearing a selection or viewing a video students are asked to complete the first two sections of the chart-"What I already know about ...." and "What I would like to find out about ...." After the information has been presented students complete the "What I learned..." section. Responses are shared with a partner. This is also known as a KWL Chart
Anticipatory Guide - Students are given a series of statements that relate to a reading selection, lecture, or video. Students indicate AGREE or DISAGREE. After the information has been presented, students check to see if they were correct.
Brainstorming- Students work as a whole group with the teacher, or in small groups. Begin with a stimulus such as a word, phrase, picture, or object and record all responses to that stimulus without prejudgment. Prewriting or INTO strategy. The students give ideas on a topic while a recorder writes them down. The students should be working under time pressure to create as many ideas as possible. All ideas count; everything is recorded. More ideas can be built on the ideas of others.
Carousel Brainstorming- Each small group has a poster with a title related to the topic of the lesson. Each group uses a different colored marker to write 4 to 5 strategies/activities that relate to their topic. Students rotate to all the other posters, reading them and adding 2 to 3 more strategies. Students discuss the results.
Character Matrix-In groups, students create a grid, which lists the characters horizontally on the left and character traits vertically across the top. The students determine the traits used. Group members decide if each character possesses each of the traits and writes "yes" or "no" in the appropriate box.
Choral Reading- Groups of students chorally present a poem, or other reading selection. One person reads the title, author, and origin. Each person says at least one line individually. Pairs of students read one or more lines. Three students read one or more lines. All students read an important line.
Clustering/Webbing/Mapping- Students, in a large group, small groups, or individually, begin with a word circled in the center, then connect the word to related ideas, images, and feelings which are also circled. Prewriting or INTO strategy.
Comprehension Check- The teacher or students read the selection aloud. Intermittently, the teacher asks for verbal and nonverbal comprehension checks ("raise your hand", "thumbs up for 'yes' ", "thumbs down for 'no'." The teacher uses a variety of question types: Right There, Think and Search, On My Own (See QAR, Day One.)
Co-op Co-op - Students work in teams to complete a project. The steps are: student-centered class discussion, selection of student study teams, team building and skill development, team topic selection, mini-topic selection, mini-topic preparation, mini-topic presentations, preparation of team presentations, team presentations, evaluation.
Cooperative Dialogue -
1.Students number off one through four.
2.Each student pairs with another student from a different group who has the same number.
3.Following the timeline from the article that was previously read each pair writes a dialogue between two characters in the passage.
4.Pairs are selected to present dialogues in chronological order to the class. activity is designed to be a text "re-presentation."
Cooperative Graphing- This activity involves graphing information based on a survey. Each group of four will take a survey of how many countries each has visited (or other teacher-determined information). A bar graph is then developed. Each person in the group is responsible for one aspect of the graph, and signs his/her name on the chart along with their area of responsibility. Jobs are: survey group members and record results, construct the graph, write names and numbers on the graph, write title and assist with graph construction. Each person in the group describes his/her part of the graph to the class.
Corners - Cooperative activity used to introduce a topic. The teacher poses a question or topic along with four choices. On a 3x5 card students write their choice and the reasons for it. Students go to the corner of the room representing their choice. In their corner, students pair up and share their reasons for selecting that corner. The topic is discussed. For example, the corners could be labeled cone, cube, pyramid, and sphere with information about each figure provided. Students go to the corner, learn about the figure, and return to teach other team members.
Directed Reading-Thinking Activity This is a group activity to get students to think about the content of a fiction or non-fiction reading selection. The steps are 1) Students predict what they will read and set purposes for reading. 2) Students read the material. 3) Students discover if their predictions and hypotheses are confirmed.
Famous Person Mystery- The name of a famous person, living or deceased is placed on the back of each student. Without looking, students try to guess who the person is by asking questions that require only yes/no answers.
Graphic Organizers - Graphic organizers are charts, graphs, or diagrams, which encourage students to see information as a component of systems rather than isolated facts. Students may complete these as they read or view a presentation. There are a variety of ways to use graphic organizers, including the following: semantic word map, story chart, Venn diagram, spider map, network tree, word map, and KWL chart. Other examples of graphic organizers are listed below.
Comparison-Contrast Matrix-Students determine similarities and differences between two people, things, solutions, organisms’ stories, ideas, or cultures.
Branching Diagrams -Organization charts, hierarchical relationships systems, family trees.
Interval Graphs-Chronological order, bar graphs, parallel events, number value.
Flowcharts - Sequential events, directions, decision making, writing reports, study skills.
Matrix Diagram-Schedules, statistics, problem solving, comparisons with multiple criteria.
Fishbone Diagram-Cause and effect, timeline.
Group Discussion, Stand Up and Share, and Roam the Room - After the teacher asks a question, students discuss and report their group findings to the class. Teams can share their best answer, perhaps on the board at the same time, or on an overhead transparency. When an individual student has something important to share with the class, he or she stands up. When one person from each group is standing, the teacher calls on one of these students for a response. If others have a similar response, they sit down. Students move around the room to view the work of other teams. They return to their teams to Round Robin share what they have learned.
Hot Topics - Students title a sheet "Hot Topics". This sheet is kept in an accessible place in their notebooks or portfolios. Students brainstorm with the teacher on possible topics of interest related to the content of the course. Each student writes down at least ten Hot Topics and adds to the list throughout the year. Students occasionally choose one Hot Topic and write in depth on the topic as a class assignment or as homework. These may be included in their portfolios.
Idea Starts -Use a prompt for writing, such as a quote, a photo, words from a vocabulary list, an article, a poem, opening lines to a story, an unusual object, a film, or a guest speaker to get students started.
Image and Quote with Cooperative Poster - Groups of four are formed. Students read a selection. Each chooses a quote and an image that have impact for them. Round Robin share. Groups come to consensus on favorite image and quote. Each student takes one colored pen. With all members participating, and each using their chosen color, they draw the group image and write the group quote on a piece of butcher or easel paper. Each member signs the poster with his or her pen. Posters are shared with the class.
Inside-Outside Circle- Students are arranged into two equal circles, one inside the other. Students from the smaller inside circle face those in the outer larger circle and vice versa. Students ask each other questions about a review topic. These may be either teacher or student generated. Students from one of the circles rotate to either the left or right. The teacher determines how many steps and in which direction. Another question is asked and answered.
Interactive Reading Guide- Working in groups, students write down everything they know about a reading selection topic. Then, they write three questions they want to have answered by the selection. Each student reads a short first section silently; then students retell the information with a partner. Next, the first ___pages (teacher's choice) are read aloud in the group, each person taking a turn to read. Then, the group predicts four things that will be discussed in the next section. The groups finish reading the chapter silently. Each person writes four thinking questions for a partner to answer. (Why do you think? Why do/did ____? How does ____relate to your life or experiences? Compare ____to __. What if____? Predict _____) Papers are exchanged and answers are given to each other's questions. Finally, with a partner, a chart or diagram is drawn to illustrate the main points of the chapter.
In-Text Questions - Students answer teacher-constructed questions about a reading selection as they read it. Questions are designed to guide students through the reading and provide a purpose for reading. Students preview In-Text questions first then answer them as they read the article. Students review their answers with their small group, and then share them with the whole group.
Jigsaw - 4-6 people per "home" team. Name the teams. Within each team, number off 1-4. All ones form an "expert group," as do twos, threes, and fours. Each expert group is assigned a part to read (or do). Experts take 15 minutes to read, take notes, discuss, and prepare presentations. Return to home teams. Each expert takes 5 minutes to present to home team.
Journals -Students keep questions and ideas in a journal. These may be used later to develop a formal piece of writing.
Language Experience Approach- This is a reading strategy based on a common experience. The students dictate a story to the teacher, who then records the story. The teacher then uses the reading as a practice on word recognition, sentence patterns, and vocabulary items.
Learning Logs - Double-entry journals with quotes, summaries, notes on the left and responses reactions, predictions, questions, or memories on the right.
Line-Ups- Line-ups can be used to improve communication and to form teams. The entire class lines up according to a specific criteria (age, birthday, first letter of name, distance traveled to school, etc.). The end of the line can move to the head of the line and pair up until each person has a partner. This is called "folding the line." Teams of four members can then be formed from this line-up.
Multiple Intelligences Inventory Given a list of preference statements organized according to the eight multiple intelligences, students place checks next to those that are true for them. By totaling the number of checks per intelligence students are able to determine areas of strength and weakness.
Novel Ideas - Groups of four are formed. Each group member has a sheet of paper with the team name or number in the corner. Each person writes, "We think a story/selection entitled (insert appropriate title) might be about ..." Each person then has one minute to list what he or she thinks the story might be about. For example, a story entitled "Eleven" might be about a football team, roll of dice, etc. Each person draws a line. Members Round Robin share their lists. As each member shares, other members add new ideas to their lists. Groups then take turns standing in a line and reading their possible topics for the whole group. Topics may not be repeated. All students add new or "novel" ideas, not on their lists.
Numbered Heads Together - A 5-step cooperative structure used to review basic facts and information. Students number off I to 4. Teacher asks a question. Students consult one another to make sure everyone can answer the question. Teacher randomly picks a number from 1 to 4. Those students with that number raise their hand: Teacher randomly chooses one of the groups. The group member with the previously selected number answers the question. After the student responds, the other teams may agree with thumbs up or thumbs down hand signal. Teacher may ask another student to add to the answer if an incomplete response is given.
Open Mind Diagram - Each person in a group of four uses a different colored marker to participate in the poster creation. Students draw a shape of a head and, inside the head, write words, quotes from the story, symbols and pictures. Words can be made into pictures of parts of the face.
Pairs Check - Cooperative pairs work on drill and practice activities. Students have worksheets. One student answers the first question while a second student acts as the coach. After the coach is satisfied that the answer is correct, and then roles are reversed. Then this pair can check with the other pair on the team. If all agree, then the process continues. If they do not agree, students try one more time to figure out the answer, or ask for help from the teacher.
Pantomime-A-Tale - This technique can be used with fiction or nonfiction reading selections. Divide an article into sections. Each group prepares their assigned section as a pantomime. There should be one group member who reads the section, with appropriate pauses, and three members who act it out without using words. Rehearsal is important, so allow time for it.
Pass the Picture -Each person in a group has a visual of a person. A blank sheet of paper is clipped to the back. The teacher asks a question (e.g., "What is his/her name?"). Students write the answer in a complete sentence on the blank paper. Students then pass the visual and the paper to the student on the right. The teacher continues asking questions and students continue writing the answer, then passing the visual to the right for 6-8 questions. At the end, each student will have a descriptive paragraph for each visual. Each student takes a visual and shares it with the group while reading the final paragraph description.
Picture This - This activity is useful as a vocabulary or concept review. A blank paper is divided into eight sections. Students draw pictures or symbols to represent words or major concepts. Students are not to label the drawings. Students exchange papers with a partner and partners try to correctly label each other's drawings.
Pie Graph - Using the results of the Multiple Intelligences inventory students draw a pie graph representing how they are smart on a paper plate. Students may color, make designs, or draw symbols for each section. Students can determine the size of each section by creating a fraction that represents each intelligence. The total number of checks is the denominator and the number of checks for that section is the numerator. This fraction can then be changed to a percent by dividing the numerator by the denominator.
Posters - As a BEYOND activity students create a poster in small groups. The following list describes several types of posters that the teacher may assign.
Illustrated Timeline Tell the plot or sequence on a timeline, with pictures that depict the events.
Movie Poster Advertise the content from a lesson by creating a movie poster complete with ratings, pictures, actors, descriptions, and comments by a critic.
Comic Strip Create a 6-paneled comic strip of the lesson content.
Image and Quote Choose an image and quote from the lesson content that are representative or important. Poster should include a title.
Advertisement Choose an item from the lesson content and make a newspaper or magazine ad for it.
PQRST Study Strategy - Preview: Student skims the title, side headings, pictures and graphics to identify writer's generalization. Question: Student identifies questions that the writer is going to answer during the reading. Read: Student reads to obtain answers to the questions and takes notes. Summarize: Student summarizes the information regarding each question posed. Test: Student tests the generalization against the supporting information to see if the author has enough information to support the generalization.
Prediction - Students make a prediction about the subject they are about to read by selecting an answer to a multiple-choice question.
Question-Answer Relationship QAR) - This program teaches students strategies for answering questions. It also points out the sources for different kinds of questions. Here are the three types of answers:
Right There The answer is located directly in the reading
Think and Search The answer is "between the lines." The reader needs to analyze, make inference and/or predict the answer based on the information in the reading.
On My Own The answer is "beyond the lines." The reader must base the answer on his/her own experience.
Quick drawing- Students sketch ideas that relate to a topic. Prewriting or INTO strategy.
Quick write - Pre-reading or pre-writing focus activity. Students are asked to respond to a question in writing for 5 minutes. Emphasis is on getting thoughts and ideas on paper. Grammar, spelling, style not important.
Quick writing-Students respond quickly to a prompt without self-editing. If students get stuck they can repeat phrases over and over until a new idea comes to mind. Prewriting or INTO strategy.
RAFT-May be used in any content area to reinforce information and check for understanding. Individuals or a group of students write about information that has been presented to them. The teacher determines the role of the writer, audience, format, and topic (RAFT). For example, in a science class, students are asked to write using the following RAFT - Role of Writer Cloud; Audience Earth; Format Weather report; Topic Explanation of upcoming thunderstorms.
Ranking and Consensus Building - Students individually rank items in a list from least important to most important. Each group or pair comes to a consensus on the order.
Read Around Groups -After completing a writing assignment, students are divided into groups of equal size. A group leader collects the group's papers then, in a clockwise direction, passes them to the next group. Each member of the group receives one paper then reads it. Readers star a line they especially like. One minute is allowed for reading and marking each paper. At signal the students pass the paper to the person on the right. After reading the papers of one group, the group chooses one paper to read aloud to the class. If time allows, groups may continue to pass papers until everyone has read all the papers.
Reader Response Chart- Students draw a T-chart on their paper. On the left side they write 3 interesting quotes from the story and on the right side students respond to the quote with personal reactions, memories, questions, compare/contrast, or something to learn more about.
Reading Circles/ Book Clubs Once students choose a book from a selection of 4 to 5 titles, they form a group with those reading the same book. Students read and solve the teacher-designed activities that relate to their book. The group shares with the class what they have learned from their reading.
Reading Guide 1. Headings Read -Around- Students take turns reading the headings of the reading
2. Prediction Chart- With their group, students choose two headings and predict what will be discussed in those sections. Students write their answers on a prediction chart with the following labels: "Heading", "Prediction", "Yes or No". In their groups, students take turns reading the first page aloud, and finish reading the selection in silence. They write "yes" or "no" on the prediction chart to indicate whether or not their predictions were correct.
5. Thinking Questions- Students write one thinking question (Why..., How..., Compare..., What if...), and exchange papers to answer each other's questions.
Reading Log- Students complete while reading a selection. The left-hand side contains topic headings for sections of the reading. Students are to briefly summarize each topic. On the right--hand side students reflect on the implications of each topic.
Reciprocal Teaching - Two students work together to read a passage. Each may have a text or they may share a text. Student A reads one paragraph aloud, then asks Student B one or two good questions. (See QAR below.) B answers or explains why she/he cannot. A and B discuss questions and answers. The process is repeated in reverse.
Reflections - Students reflect, in writing, on what was learned, what was confusing, and connections of this lesson to other lessons/other content areas/real world. Students may also reflect on their progress as a student, what to do differently next time, or what was liked about the topic.
Round Robin - Cooperative learning structure in which team members share ideas verbally on a topic. Group members share in order, without interruption, comment, discussion, or questions from other members so that everyone has an opportunity to share.
Round Table - The teacher asks a question that has many possible answers. In groups, the students make a list of possible answers by one at a time saying an answer out loud and writing it down on a piece of paper. The paper is then passed to the next student to record another answer. The process continues until the teacher tells the students to stop.
Same-Different - In pairs, students sit across from but different, pictures. Their job is to fill out what is the same and what is different in their pictures, without seeing what the other sees. Each student has a recording sheet. Students alternate recording the similarities and differences they find. One resource is Same-Different: Holidays by Dr. Spencer Kagan, Kagan Cooperative Learning 1 (800) WEE CO-OP. SDAIE STRATEGIES GLOSSARY
Send-A-Problem - Each student on a team makes up a review question and writes it on a 3x5 card. The writer asks the question of the other members of the team. When everyone agrees on an answer it is written on the back of the card. The teams then send their review questions to another team. Teams respond by having one student read the first question. Each team member writes down an answer. Team members then compare and discuss their answers. If they agree, they turn the card over to see if they concur with the sending team. If not, they write their answer on the back of the card as an alternative answer. A second student reads the next question, and so on. The stacks of cards are sent to a third, then a fourth group until all teams have had a chance to answer all questions. When the cards return to the senders, the teacher should provide an opportunity to discuss and clarify.
Startling Statements - Students are told not to look at the startling statement (question) that they have on their backs. They circulate asking five others to provide an estimate for an answer. After finding the average of the five estimates provided by others, students look at their statements (questions) and write their own estimate if they disagree with the average. Actual answers are given after the students share estimates with the whole group.
Tableau - The students form a tableau of characters or scenes or concepts. The teacher directs students regarding their positions and facial expressions. Students hold their positions in a brief tableau.
Tap-A-Word - Students practice pronouncing words or phrases by using a combination of claps, hitting the table, and snapping the fingers.
the teacher. In Round Table style, each member uses a word from the list, in the order given, in a sentence to create a collaborative story.
Think-Pair-Share - When asked to consider an idea or answer a question, students write their ideas on paper (think). Each student turns to another student nearby and reads or tells his or her own responses (pair, share). This is an oral exchange, not a reading of each other's papers.
Three Step Interview - Group participants letter off A-B-C-D. They use the following interview steps in order to share what they have written in a quick write until they all have been read. Step 1: A interviews B C interviews D Step 2: B interviews A D interviews C Step 3:A interviews C and D about B B interviews C and D about A, C interviews A and B about D, D interviews A and B about C.
Verbalizing -Students share with a partner ideas they have on a topic. Pre-writing or INTO strategy.
Visualization- In response to a teacher prompt, students visualize in their mind a particular time or place and concentrate on sensory images. (Tell students to "turn on the TV in their minds.")
Vocabulary Cards Each student selects a difficult vocabulary word fro the story and creates a card in the following manner: The word and its definition in the front, and a drawing and the vocabulary word in a sentence in the back. These cards are shared with team members, and then exchanged with other groups.